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“What should we hold on to?”: How Crimea lives through 5 years after the referendum

Five years have passed since the events of 2014. Crimeans give birth in Krasnodar so that the child can travel to Europe in the future, deliberately write the address with errors when ordering on AliExpress, complain about low salaries and high prices, and have already come to terms with the fact that being unrecognized is for a long time.

Фото: Depositphotos

On the outskirts of Feodosia there is a house that resembles a traditional Ukrainian hut - a hut with walls covered with clay. A rooster is running around the courtyard, the washbasin is made of the shade of a lantern, there are earthquake cracks on the walls, says Bi-bi-si... A 63-year-old pensioner Anna Buyanova lives here. It was she who, in May 2016, complained to Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev about the low pensions of the Crimeans, to which she heard: “There is no money, but you are holding on.”

The meeting of the people and the prime minister was unplanned. Local residents learned from familiar officials: Medvedev will go to the Aivazovsky Art Gallery.

“Some came from the night to take a seat, just to see the Prime Minister,” says Buyanova, strongly okaying.

When the prime minister arrived, the Theodosians surrounded him. Real Medvedev was different from the one everyone used to see on TV.

“I told him:“ My dear son, you are so small and thin, how can you rule the country? ”, Recalls Buyanova.

Judging by the videos made by eyewitnesses, Buyanova reacted to the famous phrase “There is no money, but you hold on”: “We understand.”

Three years later, she continues the controversy with Medvedev in absentia.

“Ay, my dear son, what to hold on to ?! A straw - and that will drown! What to hold on to? For the air or what ?! ”, - she tells the BBC.

When asked to compare her life before the annexation of Crimea and now, five years later, the pensioner replies that Crimea is now “protected”, but after “transition to the Russian Federation” the citizens “are ripped off the latter, everywhere you have to pay”.

According to her, her current pension is enough for "a week or two." “There is a great injustice going on in our localities,” the pensioner sighs.

After listening to Buyanova, correspondents Bi-bi-si drove along the route Feodosia - Yalta - Sevastopol - Simferopol - Evpatoria. And it turned out that the emotional and vivid speech of the famous Feodosia pensioner accurately expresses the mood of the majority of Crimeans on the eve of the XNUMXth anniversary of the annexation.

"Prices are just tin"

A grocery store in the village of Orekhovo - on the road from Simferopol to Evpatoria. The cost of a kilogram of bananas is approaching one hundred rubles ($ 1,55), a bottle of local kefir costs almost ninety rubles ($ 1,40), and a fresh flatbread will cost thirty (about 50 cents). This is the price level of Moscow premium supermarkets.

- So what to do? It's sad, - the saleswoman notes philosophically when asked by the correspondent Bi-bi-si about high prices.

- And how do you live here?

- Someone easier, someone harder. It’s definitely easier for those in power, ”she replies, clearly dissatisfied with the fact that the visitor does not buy anything, but only asks questions.

Official statistics are very contradictory reflects one of the main problems of the Crimea. So, from Rosstat data, it follows that in February the average cost of a dozen eggs in Simferopol was 59 rubles (90 cents), which is less than in Moscow and St. Petersburg. But fermented milk products, for example, cost almost the same as in Moscow. And potatoes are even more expensive than in the Russian capital.

The Crimea is also officially the most expensive gasoline in Russia, and real estate prices have long been inferior only to Moscow, St. Petersburg and the Moscow region (data from Rosstat and TsIAN).

The credibility of the objectivity of statistics is undermined by local authorities, which conduct their own monitoring of prices: sometimes their data differ even with Rosstat. According to them, for example, it turns out that a kilogram of flour in Krasnodar in February cost 6 rubles less than in local retail chains in Simferopol (Pud, Furshet, etc.) Although, according to Rosstat, their cost is almost the same ...

Фото: Depositphotos

Crimeans in the matter of prices are guided by their feelings.

“Russian prices are just tough,” a military pensioner Svetlana from Sevastopol assesses the situation.

"Crazy, wild," says Bi-bi-si resident Evpatoria.

“In Ukraine, goods also cost at the level of the capital, Kiev,” she recalled in an interview with Bi-bi-si resident of Yalta.

“The prices are at the same level, the currency has just changed,” the young man from Evpatoria is sure.

Since 2014, the cumulative inflation in Crimea has amounted to 46%, it follows from the data of the Crimean statistics. For comparison - on average in Russia prices for the same period increased by 27%.

Such growth was inevitable, believes the general director of the INFOLine agency Ivan Fedyakov: five years ago there was a different logistics for delivering goods to the peninsula - they came directly from the territory of Ukraine. In addition, Crimean prices rose along with Russian ones due to the devaluation of the ruble, he adds.

In June 2018, during the last direct line with President Vladimir Putin, a Crimean businessman, standing on Mount Mithridat on the outskirts of Kerch, complained to the president about high prices. Putin acknowledged the problem, but predicted that after the opening of freight traffic on the Kerch Bridge, prices would “stabilize”.

The wagons went to the bridge in October 2018 of the year. However, this did not affect the prices, contrary to the forecasts of the president. Over the past three months of 2018, prices in the Crimea increased by one percent, and inflation of the year exceeded the figures of 2018. In January, prices jumped another one percent.

“The bridge had no impact,” admits Arsen, a young resident of the Azovskoye village in northeastern Crimea, in March 2019. And he complains about low incomes, because of which the rise in prices is perceived by the Crimeans especially sharply.

"You need to stink"

Salaries and prices are a popular area for comparing two periods of Crimean history.

On the main embankment of Theodosia to correspondents Bi-bi-si an elderly woman in a white beret came up - the poet Larisa Timofeeva. She invited me to a creative evening called “Crimea. Russia. Destiny ”and offered to read on camera a poem dedicated to the events of 2014.

“The fields will bloom again with lush flowers,

And happily sigh your people.

You will be reborn, Crimean land,

Under the Russian flag of sun and freedom ”.

Following the poems, a conversation began about the prose of life. “It’s hard for those who have a small pension,” Timofeeva admits. Her it is 16 thousand ($ 250), but for utilities she gives five ($ 77) - the apartment is large.

At the beginning of 2019, the average pension in the Crimea was 12,7 thousand rubles ($ 197).

The situation is the same with salaries. In 2018, the average nominal salary on the peninsula amounted to 29,2 thousand rubles ($ 454), according to the data of Krymstat. Crimean salaries are significantly lower than the all-Russian indicator (43 thousand - $ 668), as well as those regions with which the peninsula is usually compared in terms of prices. So, in the Krasnodar Territory, citizens in 2018 received an average of 33,6 thousand rubles ($ 522).

Even this small salary by federal standards differs from city to city. For example, in Feodosia, the average salary is 16 thousand rubles ($ 249), says local resident Natalya. According to her, it is impossible to live on it. “Someone in the summer makes money by renting housing to tourists, someone goes to work. But if you take a family without extra real estate and without a business, then to survive you need to roam together, ”she says.

Фото: Depositphotos

However, the official data is different: according to Krymstat, in the first nine months of 2018 Feodosia was one of the three cities with the highest salaries on the peninsula - the department estimated the average earnings there at 31,3 thousand rubles ($ 486).

A young man named Ridvan, who lives in one of the villages of the Dzhankoy region in the north-east of Crimea, works at a gas station in a “day after three” mode and receives 9 thousand rubles a month for his labor. “It saves the backyard,” he says.

“Now summer doesn't bring me much income,” says a young girl from the same city.

“In Ukraine, my pension was enough,” recalls an elderly woman in Feodosia.

“Pensions are higher in comparison with Ukrainian ones,” on the contrary, her fellow countryman believes.

“Salaries are higher now,” says a resident of Yalta

According to RBC's calculations, if in 2013 the average Crimean resident could afford to buy a little more than seven grocery baskets per month for one salary, then in 2018 it was already almost ten.

The ability of a Sevastopol to buy an apartment has increased compared to Ukrainian times by 7%, calculated Bi-bi-si based on data from the local ACG agency

"Ukraine would not have pulled such volumes"

Small salaries contrast with massive cash infusions from the federal budget. Since 2015, almost half a trillion rubles ($ 7,77 billion) have been spent under the program “Social and Economic Development of Crimea and Sevastopol”, of which 140 billion ($ 2,17 billion) - in 2018 alone.

All this financial flow goes to infrastructure: in five years, the Kerch bridge was built, the Tavrida highway is being built and reconstructed, which will run through the entire peninsula, two new thermal power plants have been built, and a 12-storey hospital is being built in the capital of Crimea. A new terminal of the Simferopol airport was built on the basis of a public-private partnership.

First of all, investments in infrastructure were recalled by local residents when answering the question of what has changed on the peninsula over the past five years.

“For five years, Crimea has seen such financial injections that have not been seen in the entire Ukrainian period,” says a young resident of Yevpatoria.

“Ukraine would not have pulled such volumes,” says a pensioner from Simferopol, listing infrastructure projects in recent years.

True, the popular opinion on the peninsula that the Ukrainian authorities only took money from the peninsula without giving anything in return is not supported by statistics.

Фото: Depositphotos

In 2013, the last full year under the Ukrainian government, half of the Crimean budget was formed through subsidies from the central government, the BBC calculated. Now the federal budget forms two-thirds of the local treasury. Although it is clear that the possibilities of the Russian budget are higher: in 2013, the budget of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea was $ 1,1 billion, in 2018 - $ 2,8 billion.

However, comparing their lives before annexation and after, most Crimeans said Bi-bi-sithat it either "did not improve" or "remained at the same level."

Attitude to infrastructure projects as something that does not have a qualitative impact on everyday life is typical for residents of all regions of Russia, political analyst Andrei Kolyadin notes.

The authorities believe that new roads and power plants will provide a breakthrough in the future, but residents want changes right now - for example, higher incomes, the expert says. The result is an increase in discontent.

On childbirth in Krasnodar

For five years, almost all hints of the Ukrainian past of the peninsula disappeared from public space. Road signs and address plates in the Ukrainian language are replaced by Russians. However, in some places the past still reminds of itself.

So, in Simferopol correspondent Bi-bi-si found the pointer “vul. Sergeev-Tsensky "and a sign" Ukraine. Architectural memo ”on the building of the Ministry of Finance of Crimea. At the gas stations there are old gas stations, which say “the rate of hryvnia”, that is, “the cost in hryvnia”. And trolleybuses and minibuses “Bogdan” produced by the Ukrainian corporation of the same name, Oleg Gladkovsky, ex-partner of President Petro Poroshenko, are still scurrying along the streets of Crimean cities.

“Our life has changed in an excellent way, we are very happy,” a resident of Yevpatoria cheerfully compares the Ukrainian and Russian times. But she admits: she kept the Ukrainian passport - in her words, as a “souvenir”, in a “box”.

And it is not the only one: Crimeans not only hold passports with a yellow-blue trident, but also use them instead of Russian ones.

The border between the "mainland" Ukraine and the Crimea in the area of ​​the village of Kalanchak. The checkpoint on the Ukrainian side is of an emphatically temporary nature: hastily assembled booths, concrete blocks standing right on the highway with embrasures for shooting. Passports have to be shown while standing outside in the cold steppe wind: there are no premises for inspection. All this seems to underline the attitude of the Ukrainian authorities to the events of 2014: on the other side of the border there is a temporarily occupied territory.

The Russian checkpoint looks more fundamental: closed rooms for passport and customs inspection, equipment for scanning all carried baggage.

Direct passenger interrupted. To get to Ukraine and back, Crimeans first arrive by bus to the border, go on foot through two checkpoints, then get on the bus again and go about their business.

The only convenience is the ability to buy one ticket for two buses at once. It looks like a plastic token, on one side of which, for example, is written “Armyansk” (a northern Crimean city), and on the other - “Kherson” (a city in southern Ukraine).

Despite the difficulties, over 120 thousands of people in both directions pass through the checkpoints in the north of Crimea every month, according to the latest statistics of the Ministry for Temporarily Occupied Territories of Ukraine. At the same time, according to the census 2014 of the year, conducted after the annexation, only 46 thousand Crimean citizens retained their Ukrainian citizenship, with a population of 2,2 million.

Inhabitants of the peninsula use Ukrainian passports to travel “to the mainland”; they go to the Kherson region to reissue documents. Often, re-registration is accompanied by additional checks, follows from the UN report on human rights in Crimea.

“Because of all these labor costs, it is more difficult for me to go to my parents in Ukraine,” says Natalya, a resident of Feodosia. “Before, I could take a bus in Simferopol in the evening and be with them in the morning.”

It is problematic to get out of the Crimea not only to Ukraine, but also to Europe. Some countries refuse to issue Schengen visas to residents of the peninsula due to the unrecognized status of the occupied territory.

However, travel agencies in Simferopol and Sevastopol help to get the coveted stamp in the passport, even with a Crimean residence permit, said Anastasia, a resident of the peninsula. True, the cost of the service reaches 800 euros (more than $ 900) for one visa. One of the Sevastopol travel agencies reported that 600-700 euros (680-790 dollars) would have to be paid for a “guaranteed” visa, plus they would have to go to Krasnodar or Moscow to get fingerprints.

In the list of countries that allegedly issue visas to Crimeans, the employee Nadezhda named the Czech Republic and Italy. They were also mentioned in the article by Radio Liberty, dedicated to the visa problem of Crimea.

However, even intermediary travel agencies can do nothing if a visa is required for a child born in Crimea after the annexation. “His birth certificate says:“ Crimea, Russia ”. The same is in the “Place of birth” column in the foreign passport. It is impossible to obtain Schengen with such an entry. They give to the whole family, but not to the child, ”Anastasia from Sevastopol complains.

Those who know about this problem try to go to Krasnodar to give birth, adds her compatriot Ekaterina. In addition, Krasnodar is also the closest place from where you can fly to Europe on a direct flight: due to sanctions, the new Simferopol airport serves only flights from Russia.

But they go to Krasnodar not only for childbirth or landing on an international flight: there you can see shops that do not work in the Crimea.

"We are like North Cyprus"

“Hurray, finally we are at Magnit,” says Vyacheslav Reprintsev, a resident of Yalta, about one of the largest retail chains in Russia. “Magnet!”, - half in jest, his wife rejoices.

They run the YouTube channel Crimea through the eyes of the locals. A separate video is devoted to a visit to the FixPrice store in Anapa, the other is about a trip to the Perekrestok and Magnit. In total, both scored 70 thousand views.

For Crimeans, who rarely leave the peninsula, these shops, familiar to all Russians, are really a real wonder. Neither X5 Retail Group (owns the chains Pyaterochka, Perekrestok and Karusel), nor Magnit, nor FixPrice, nor other chains have begun to operate in Crimea after the annexation.

However, there are network players who are not afraid to work in Crimea. For example, the Russian “Sportmaster” has three stores on the peninsula. At the same time, the company has retail outlets in Ukraine. The situation is similar with the French "Auchan", which openly works both in Simferopol and in "mainland" Ukraine.

Sometimes retailers do not work on the peninsula directly, but through related structures. Until recently, "L'Etoile" sold cosmetics to the Crimeans through its one hundred percent "daughter" in the Crimea. However, at the beginning of 2019, the company passed to Alexander Rubin, who previously worked as CFO and Director of Corporate Governance at L'Etoile.

In some cases, a possible connection with a major federal player is hidden deep.

For example, in Crimea there is not a single federal network of filling stations - neither Rosneft, nor Gazpromneft, nor Lukoil. But at the same time, there are several gas stations called “T ~ oil”, which use the trademark red-green colors of Tatneft.

One of them, not far from Yalta, is managed by the Resurs-A company, registered with a company from Tatarstan, and its ultimate owner is Sergey Kucheryavenko. He is the director or owner of 255 other companies.

At the same time on the day when the reporter visited Bi-bi-si, it sold gasoline from Tatneft-AZS-Yug.

Фото: Depositphotos

Resource-A was already mentioned in the December 2017 investigation by Reuters. The Sevastopol gas station was registered for it, which was previously controlled by the KONZ company, associated with a subsidiary of Tatneft.

Not only are there no federal retail and filling networks in Crimea. There are no “big four” mobile operators' offices here.

Of the popular Russian banks, the Rossiya bank, which has long been sanctioned, operates in Crimea. Neither Sberbank, nor VTB, nor Alfa-Bank are represented on the peninsula.

“Sanctions,” - casually, without being distracted from work, explains the barista in a coffee shop in Yevpatoria, when the correspondent Bi-bi-si trying unsuccessfully to pay for coffee using Apple Pay.

Instead, the phone has to get the card itself and attach it to the terminal. The transaction through the American Visa, which does not recognize the annexation, goes well: this time the information on the purchase of double espresso is processed through the national payment card system of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation (NSPK), and not through the foreign Apple servers.

Yllta and Sevast0p0l

Due to the fears of federal players, a kind of economic ecosystem has developed in Crimea - local retail chains, operators and banks operate here. Some are directly owned by the Russian state, such as the largest bank RNKB with 170 branches on the peninsula. The ownership structure of others goes to anonymous offshores: for example, the mobile operator Volna is registered with a company from the British Virgin Islands.

However, locals are already accustomed to this ecosystem as inevitable. “The experience of Transnistria and Northern Cyprus shows that isolation can last for decades,” says Natalia from Feodosia.

Under these conditions, Crimeans have new everyday habits that they could hardly have imagined when they went to the referendum in March 2014,

A basic technological habit has become the use of a VPN, a service that allows you to hide your Crimean IP address and freely use Internet services. For example, to watch a series on Netflix or a paid movie on YouTube.

“Technological progress does not stand still, I hardly notice isolation,” says a girl from Simferopol. “It can be more difficult for young people to spend weekends at home in a cozy environment with a girl and a cat and watch a series. We are trying to find workarounds, ”a young resident of Evpatoria complains.

Shopping in the Chinese online store AliExpress has become a whole science - specialized communities in social networks are devoted to it.

In order to start shopping, Crimeans create a new VPN account for themselves to hide their real location. Further, by specifying the delivery address, they deliberately make a mistake in the address in order to bypass the system restrictions. For example, they write the zero symbol instead of the letter “o” in the word Sevastopol, says Ekaterina from Sevastopol.

Gimmicks work. “I order a lot on AliExpress,” says Alexei, a resident of Simferopol.

Errors in the address are also made for ordering bank cards from the “mainland” in order to pay for purchases in international online stores: all seven banks operating in Crimea are under international sanctions.

At least until mid-January 2019, Yandex.Money and Qiwi cards were delivered to the peninsula, the BBC wrote. To do this, only one mistake was made in the order form: the address indicated Krasnodar Territory instead of Crimea. Yandex and Qiwi then denied that they were delivering cards to Crimea.

If someone 2014 year brought only domestic difficulties when buying goods in China or watching TV shows, then for many Crimean Ukrainians, it became a tragedy.

“2014 has become a litmus test in relations with people and with our country. When nothing is taken from you, you live and love your country. [And when they take her away], you understand how dear she is to you. People whom I considered friends, [and] relatives who turned out to be enemies, disappeared from my life, ”says Olga Pavlenko, an activist at the Ukrainian Cultural Center in Crimea.

No flags without anthem

“I say nasty Russian, I use Ukrainian lichen,” a man who enters Crimea from the Ukrainian Kalanchak says to a Russian border guard.

The border guard in Russian calms him down that he understands Ukrainian. And then he throws in additional questions: “Where are you coming from? What are you doing in Odessa? What is your occupation?".

Because of this impromptu interrogation, the Ukrainian is noticeably nervous and switches to excellent Russian. In the end, they let him through. At the exit from the checkpoint, a BBC correspondent catches up with him. “I think from my behavior you understand what my position is [on the annexation],” he replies.

In 2014, after the referendum, 15,7% of Crimean residents identified themselves as “Ukrainians”, it follows from the census data. Compared to the last Ukrainian census conducted in 2001, their number has decreased by 8%. Are there organizations that protect their interests?

The public organization “Ukrainian Community of Crimea” is officially operating in Crimea. Its head, Anastasia Gridchina, regularly comments on the state media criticizing the Kiev authorities. Among the founders of the community, according to the Unified State Register of Legal Entities, there is the former deputy head of the Crimean branch of the Young Guard of United Russia, Roman Chegrinets. At the same time he also heads the organization “Belarusians of Crimea”.

Gridchina does not deny that he is cooperating with the authorities, but does not see anything wrong with that. According to her, the community sees as its goal the support of Ukrainian culture in the Crimea, without challenging Russian sovereignty over the peninsula.

“The pro-Russian organization is not interesting to me in principle. It makes no sense, ”says Vera Levkovich, a resident of Crimea in Simferopol, who openly declares her pro-Ukrainian views on social media. “This is a pocket organization,” says Olga Pavlenko.

Until recently, Pavlenko was an activist of the Ukrainian Cultural Center, which came under pressure from law enforcement agencies, follows from the UN report on human rights on the peninsula. “We asked to allow an evening in memory of Lesya Ukrainka - we were forbidden. We organized courses in Ukrainian embroidery - the prosecutor's office came to the library where they took place, ”Pavlenko says.

In September 2018, after searches at her house on suspicion of links with the “Right Sector” banned in Russia, Pavlenko left Crimea for Ukraine.

The UN connects the prosecution of pro-Ukrainian residents of the Crimea with their views. For example, in 2018, a resident of one of the villages in the north-west of the peninsula Vladimir Balukha was sentenced to a criminal term for possession of weapons and ammunition. But the report’s authors point out that the search, in the course of which they found the ammunition, began after the Balukh once again hung the Ukrainian flag on its house.

For fear of persecution, some Crimean Ukrainians try not to advertise their views and do not participate in any public events. “I am Ukrainian, for me the events of 2014 are a tragedy. But I don't show myself as a Ukrainian, ”says Natalya from Feodosia.

The UN also fixes serious pressure on the Crimean Tatars, to whom, during the last census, they attributed more than 10% of Crimeans.

Among them are active opponents of what happened to the Crimea in 2014 year. It was the representatives of the Tatar community who were active participants in the 23 rally in February 2014, near the Crimean parliament building, where pro-Russian and pro-Ukrainian activists clashed.

“What else is joining? If you say that, then I have nothing to talk to you about! It was an annexation! ”- this is how he reacted to the call of the correspondent Bi-bi-si a farmer from the Dzhankoy region, an ethnic Tatar who once worked in the local administration.

According to the UN, from 1 January 2017 of the year to 30 of June 2018 of the year, 95 house searches were conducted in the Crimea on charges of terrorism and extremism. Of these, 86% dealt with Crimean Tatars.

For five years, the pressure has not decreased against the Crimean Tatars and Ukrainians who oppose the annexation of the peninsula, lawyer Nikolai Polozov agrees. “We see that the number of Ukrainian political prisoners is only growing. At the moment, there are already 73 people, most of them are Crimean Tatars, ”the lawyer notes.

Divided future

In the center of Simferopol, a two-minute walk to the monument to "polite people", two high school students are handing out flyers.

“Our life hasn't changed in any way since 2014. We are now paid for work not 20 hryvnia, but 100 rubles ", - answers the question Bi-bi-si one of them.

“Buildings were restored in Simferopol, the city blossomed, they began to clean it. And before you go - bulls everywhere, rubbish, ”- on the contrary, the other is happy.

They also see their future differently. The student who has noted the changes for the better intends to graduate from the university “on the mainland” and return to live in Crimea, because he sees prospects for himself on the peninsula.

His companion is completely different. “I want to live and study in Ukraine, in Kiev. I do not want to live in Russia".

Read also on ForumDaily:

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How Crimea was annexed: March of 2014 in the eyes of Moscow, Kiev and Sevastopol

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