Top 20 Unexpected Effects of Weather: Heat Provokes Stupidity and Willingness to Fight
Is it true that in hot weather people become aggressive, sexually preoccupied and more tired? News of Israel in Russian collected all the new discoveries of scientists on this topic.
Doctors have long warned about such a phenomenon as heat exhaustion. It develops in people who are exposed to heat for a long time - working outdoors in the summer or living indoors without air conditioning. Heat exhaustion causes fatigue, apathy or irritability, interruptions in the work of the kidneys and heart.
It turns out that this is not the only consequence of the effect of heat on our body. And every year, heat exhaustion captures more and more countries and people - because of global warming.
This is what scientists warn about:
1. I'm hot, therefore, I'm stupid?
When we are hot, the quality of the brain is reduced. Professor Joe Allen of Harvard University conducted a study during a particularly hot weather in Boston comparing two groups of students.
The first lived in a building with central air conditioning, where the temperature was pleasant - 22 degrees, and the second lived in rooms without air conditioning, where the average temperature was 27 degrees.
Every morning, when students woke up, they received tasks on their phones by which they could assess the speed of information processing, memory and concentration. Those who slept in the heat had 13 percent lower scores on elementary arithmetic problems and 10 percent lower in the number of correct answers per minute.
2. We were better in Europe
Residents of cold countries, on average, have a higher level of intelligence. Psychologist Joseph Ryan of the University of Missouri compared the results of standard IQ tests that American students take in 4th, 8th and 12th grades with the local weather and found that the higher the temperature, the lower the IQ. Psychologists from the University of California conducted a similar study comparing 120 countries around the world and came to the same conclusion.
3. Do not leave the child in the sun: become poor
Infants under one year of age who are exposed to extreme heat (more than 32 degrees), grow up and become people who earn less than the average. Every day, at temperatures above 32 degrees, an additional decrease in their annual income by 0,1% in the age of 30 years.
This surprising finding comes from three scientists at Berkeley University, Arizona State University, and Stanford University. They used data from the 12 million Americans born between 1969 and 1977 and information about the weather that prevailed during that period.
The authors of the study do not explain their results, but emphasize the high sensitivity of infants to heat, because their nervous system is not yet fully developed.
4. Don't be born in summer
According to a study conducted by the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology in 2014, children born in the summer are more nervous than those born at other times. Their behavior is characterized by frequent and rapid transitions between sadness and joy.
Children born in spring are more positive, in winter they are the least irritable, while those born in autumn are the least prone to depression.
5. The better the air conditioner works, the more efficiently a person works.
Employee productivity peaks when the temperature in the office is about 22 degrees, researchers at Berkeley University found.
When it exceeds 24 degrees, the quality of work begins to decrease, and with 30 degrees, performance decreases by 9%.
6. Time of conflict
As the heat rises, the “fuses” in the head often blow out. A 2013 meta-study by three scientists from Berkeley and Princeton Universities analyzed 60 studies on the link between climate and human conflict. It was found that during times of drought there was a sharp increase in the level of domestic violence.
The authors of the study suggest that rising temperatures give impetus to larger conflicts - interethnic and interstate clashes.
7. Up to mental disorders
The American Psychological Association views extreme weather events as a source of trauma: they can cause depression and anxiety. A heat wave in Ontario (Canada) in early July 2012, when temperatures approached 50 degrees, led to the fact that the psychiatric ward at Windsor Regional Hospital was completely filled.
8. Air conditioning is required for courtesy
When we are hot, we become unpleasant in communication. Last year, two American scientists published a series of three studies that proved this. In one of them, they followed salespeople in a large store in Moscow through a heat wave in 2010 and found that during the heat wave they were less friendly to customers, less helpful, and provided less product information.
9. Summer of love
The summer heat stimulates the libido and creates physical conditions that are conducive to sex. As vitamin D levels increase in the body, it increases testosterone levels associated with sex drive.
10. Flirt Season
On warm sunny days, the success of flirting is almost guaranteed. Professor Nicola Gauguin from the University of South Brittany found out how the weather affects courtship.
He sent a handsome 20-year-old boy to meet girls. The guy came up to the girls, introduced himself and asked them for a phone number to call later. The experiment was repeated on warm sunny days and overcast days, and women were more willing to give their numbers on sunny days (22,4%) than on overcast days (13,9%).
11. Batteries fail quickly
Each 8 degree increase in temperature cuts the life of a lead battery in half. For example, a VRLA battery that has a lifespan of 10 years at 25 degrees Celsius will only last five years if constantly exposed to 33 degrees, and it will last less than three years at 41 degrees.
The car battery can be used for 59 months in cold areas and 47 in hot areas.
12. World in fire
30% of the world's population is currently experiencing at least 20 days of catastrophic heat per year, and by 2100, this nightmare will be experiencing 48% of the world's population. And this is considered a relatively optimistic estimate based on the assumption that we can reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Between 1980 and 2014, 164 catastrophic heat waves were recorded in 36 cities in 783 countries, killing tens of thousands of people. According to researchers, if greenhouse gas emissions increase, then 74% of the world's population will be exposed to deadly heat waves.
13. Men are more resistant to heat.
Between 2000 and 2010, 8081 Americans died from extreme heat, with 72% of them due to direct exposure to it. Most of the dead (69%) were men.
14. Who is the worst in the heat
Exhausting heat is especially dangerous for the following groups: children under 4 years old, adults over 65 years old, overweight, suffering from chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease, the poor (who find it difficult to pay for air conditioning) and socially isolated people (no one will notice their problems ).
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Even for healthy young people, fever can be dangerous if they are engaged in strenuous physical activities, drink alcohol or take medicines that interfere with the body's ability to regulate temperature.
15. City steam room
In the city center is usually warmer than on the outskirts. According to the US Environmental Protection Agency, the temperature gap between the city center and its outskirts can reach 12 degrees.
This is a relatively new climatic phenomenon created by a man who uprooted vegetation, covered the earth with asphalt and built stone buildings, the walls of which absorb and accumulate heat.
16. Climate Refugees
By 2100, one fifth of the world's population (2 billion people) will leave their homes due to the effects of global warming, primarily sea level rise. Such is the conclusion of a particularly pessimistic study conducted last year at Cornell University.
17. It's hard to fly from Israel
Aircraft can not safely fly in very high temperatures, so dozens of commercial flights were canceled or delayed as a result of recent heat waves. Hot air affects the physics of the flight of an aircraft: the lift force that a wing can create depends on the density of the air, and the higher the temperature, the lower the density of the gas.
In such a situation, the aircraft needs a longer takeoff run in order to gain speed for takeoff. The only option is to reduce the weight of the aircraft or postpone the flight until the heat subsides.
18. Cat in the summer eats without appetite
Not only people lose their appetite in the heat. A group of English and French researchers published in 2014 in the journal PLoS One the results of observations carried out over a period of six years on 38 cats in the south of France. The cats could choose when they would eat and move freely between the house and the yard. They ate the most during the winter months, from October to February, while in June, July and August they ate 15% less food compared to December. This is because as the temperature rises, mammals become less active and require less energy.
19. Cool and get sick
Air conditioning is your best friend in hot weather, but it can also be your enemy. Humidity in air conditioning systems encourages the growth of bacteria and fungi, and the currents of air carry them everywhere.
This is why air conditioners can make asthma and allergy sufferers worse. Worst of all is the so-called sick building syndrome: office workers in rooms with central air conditioning are more likely to suffer from nasal congestion, breathing difficulties, headaches, fatigue and skin irritation.
20. How to survive without air conditioning
What can someone who does not have an air conditioner do? He needs to drink a lot, avoid direct sunlight and exercise during the hottest hours. It is recommended to cool the body while taking a bath, using an ice water sink or frozen towels.
The larger the area of skin that we cool, the faster the body temperature drops. Scientists found in 2015 that cooling the palms of the hands accelerates the decrease in body temperature. It is most effective to apply cold objects to the cheeks, legs and arms.
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