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Judgment Day: interesting facts and traditions of the Jewish holiday Yom Kippur

The Yom Kippur holiday among the Jews is one of the most important in the religion of Judaism, and many interesting traditions are associated with it. NV.

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The names of the months and days according to the Torah do not coincide with the Christian ones, and the holidays are fundamentally different. So, Yom Kippur in 2022 is celebrated on October 4-5 - this is the 10th day of the seventh month of Tishri. Due to the mismatch of calendars, every year it is celebrated on different days. The holiday is considered formidable, however, despite the name, in terms of meaning it has a uniquely festive coloring.

Yom Kippur 2022 - history and interesting traditions

On the Day of Judgment Yom Kippur, the Almighty, whom the Jews also call Yahweh, judges the souls and pronounces a sentence, which he writes in a book and seals. Judgment Day is the last after the 10-day judgment, which continues from the beginning of Tishri. Interestingly, Yom Kippur takes 25 hours, so it is celebrated for two days. In 2022, these are October 4 and 5, in 2021 Yom Kippur was celebrated on September 15-16.

The holiday begins on the evening of the first day and ends 25 hours later with the sound of the Shofar, a Jewish ritual musical instrument made from the horn of an animal. By the way, the Judgment begins on the 1st day of Tishri also with the sound of the Shofar. The origin of Yom Kippur comes from the day when Moses received 10 tablets from God and descended with them to the people to carry the commandments of Judaism.

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On the eve of Yom Kippur, a hearty dinner is held for the whole family, called Seuda Mafseket.

A Jew is supposed to spend Yom Kippur in spiritual meditation and prayer. Especially important is the Yizkor prayer (memory), during which the Jews remember their dead relatives, pronouncing their names. On this day, according to tradition, every married man lights a family candle at home, the “candle of life” ner hai-im, which will burn until the end of the holiday.

Since the Almighty writes names in the Book of Life and Death, there is a tradition to wish each other "that the name be written in the Book of Life and sealed." At the end of the Day of Judgment, the Nemulu Prayer is recited as the gates of heaven close until next year.

Bans on Yom Kippur

On Yom Kippur, Jews observe a strict fast - you need to forget about the physical aspects of life. It is forbidden to wash, eat, also touch leather products, use cosmetics and enter into marital relations.

In Israel, television and radio stations, public transport, and the airport do not work on this day. Prohibitions are not publicly violated even by secular Jews, and the behavior of foreigners who do not observe traditions is not welcome.

Yom Kippur also ends with a hearty dinner for the whole family and the expression: "In a year in Jerusalem."

18 interesting facts about the holiday

1. Fasting and holiday at the same time. Despite the ban on eating and drinking, in the Jewish tradition this holiday is considered the most important and solemn. Ujew. The Mishnah says that Yom Kippur is one of the most joyful days of the year (along with Tu B'Av, the Fifteenth of Av).

2. On this day, the forty-day period of spiritual purification ends. Rising spiritually, Jews are like angelswho are alien to everything material. God redeems His people from their sins. What is not a reason for joy?

3. Atonement for sins - in the sense that the offenses committed by a person in relation to the Almighty are forgiven, - naturally after teshuva. Sins against a person can only be forgiven after a sincere teshuva, and if the other has forgiven the offender and, if possible, the consequences of the sin are corrected.

4. Yom Kippur is celebrated on the 10th of Tishrei according to the Jewish calendar. Translated from Hebrew - Day of Atonement (options: “Day of Atonement”, “Day of Forgiveness”). On this day, according to Jewish tradition, the sentence pronounced on Rosh Hashanah is finally confirmed (this is Yom a-din - Judgment Day).

5. The date of Tishrei 10 is also the day the Jewish people received the two tablets of the Ten Commandments for the second time. In fact, the day of receiving the Torah.

6. Yom Kippur - the only fast (there are seven during the year) prescribed by the Torah. The rest were introduced by the sages in connection with various events in Jewish history.

7. "Shabbat Shabaton" (Saturday Shabbat) - this is the description of Yom Kippur given in the Torah. On this day all work restrictions apply (melachah), just like on Shabbat, but with its own special rules.

8. On the eve of the holiday, there is a custom to perform the “kaparot” ceremony, when they take a rooster or a chicken (depending on whether you are a man or a woman) and, twisting the bird over their heads, they read a special prayer, where, by the way, it says: "This is my redemption, this is my replacement ...". Symbolically, this shifts the sins of a person onto the poor bird, which is sent to the shoikhet.

9. They eat a special mitzvah before fasting. There is a tradition to eat a special kind of dumplings - kreplekh.

10. The centerpiece of Yom Kippur is strict 25 hour fastwhen you can't eat or drink. Of course, according to the “pikuah nefesh” rule, there are relaxations or general exemption from fasting for small children and seriously ill people.

11 Five prohibitions of Yom Kippur: eat and drink; wash and bathe; smear with creams and oils; wear leather shoes; marital intimacy.

12. This is the only day in the year when, during the time of the Temple, the koen-gadol (high priest) entered the Holy of Holies and pronounced the four-letter name of God - then they still knew how to pronounce it accurately.

13. Yom Kippur - the only major holiday that is not doubled in the diasporabecause fasting for two days is very difficult. In addition, it can never fall on a Friday or Sunday.

14. it the only fast that, if it falls on Shabbat, does not carry over to the next day.

15 Prayers on Yom Kippur are usually very long. because of the large number of inserts, and besides, there are five of them (prayers), and most of all in number: Maariv, Shacharit, Musaf, Mincha and Neila (read only on Yom Kippur).

16. The names of the holidays Purim and Yom ha-Kippurim (this form is also used, in the plural) feel something in common - and yes, as the sages say, there is a connection. The word "Kippurim" can be read as "ke-Purim" (like Purim). It is believed that if on Yom Kippur we reach spiritual heights through fasting and prayer, then on Purim we ascend to holiness through food and fun.

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17 In the State of Israel, transport does not work on this day, and many refrain from publicly violating Yom Kippur, so highways and roads are empty. Children take advantage of this and ride bicycles for their own pleasure, which is why this day has a comic name - “bike holiday”.

18 There is an expression "Jew of Yom Kippur", about a person who appears in the synagogue very rarely, but, as a rule, on this very day. A sense of reverence for Yom Kippur has survived among the Jewish people to this day, even among Jews who are far from religion, often being for them the only form of connection with Judaism.

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