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Bu məqalə Google Translate servisi vasitəsi ilə avtomatik olaraq rus dilindən azərbaycan dilinə tərcümə olunmuşdur. Bundan sonra mətn redaktə edilməmişdir.

30 000 for 5 years: why in the USA students under the age of 10 are arrested

Crime statistics compiled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) show that between the 2013 and 2017 years (the most recent year for which full data are available), at least 26 966 children under the age of 10 were arrested in the United States. According to the data, the number of children arrested between the ages of 10 and 12 is 228 017 for the same period. Writes about it Yahoo! News.

Фото: Depositphotos

Child arrest regulations apply worldwide. For example, in England and Wales, the age for criminal prosecution is 10 years old, and for those under 10 years old - the alternative regime. In Scotland - 8 years.

In the U.S., in 34 states there is no minimum age for criminal prosecution, while in most other states it is 10 years. The federal system prefers to obey the state juvenile delinquency system, according to which, according to the Congressional Research Service, a child can be arrested even at the age of seven.

According to the Department of Justice Juvenile Justice and Crime Prevention Office, in 24 states there is no minimum age for referring juvenile cases to an adult criminal court.

Despite the fact that the number of arrests of minors between the ages of 10 and 17 in the United States has been steadily declining since it reached a peak in the mid-1990, while arrests of children under 12 are only a small fraction of the total number of annual arrests in the United States, experts say That is still too much.

"This is funny. If we're going to treat children like that, we need to think about the consequences, especially if we want to stop the violence, ”said Lisa Turau, founder and CEO of Strategy for Youth, a non-profit organization that trains law enforcement agencies on how to handle young children. "It creates violence, does not prevent it, and it also weakens the children's connection to school."

Of particular concern with juvenile arrests is disciplinary action for members of different races, and how officers are trained to handle children.

From 2013 to 2017, about 30 schoolchildren were arrested in US schools. In 000, this amounted to 2103 students, 6 - 394, 2014 - 6, in 458 - 2015 students, and in 5 - 144.

Hysteria led to the arrest of 6-year-old child

Meraline Kirkland, the grandmother of one of the 6-year-olds arrested this month in Orlando, said her granddaughter, an African American, was detained on charges of assaulting an employee whom she allegedly pushed in hysterics.

The girl was taken to a local juvenile assessment center and fingerprinted.

“When they told me about this, I was stunned,” Kirkland said. "In the office I saw two photographs of my six-year-old granddaughter."

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Kirkland said that if a school employee took the time for the girl, she would know that the girl is prone to tantrums because she suffers from sleep apnea.

Police Sheriff Orlando Rolon said he was fired for violating department policies because he did not receive permission from the chief to arrest a child under the age of 12.

Details about the arrest of another 6-year-old child by the same officer who arrested Kirkland’s granddaughter were not disclosed by Rolon, he simply announced the rules governing the privacy of minors.

“The top priority is to build and protect trust between the public and officials,” Rolon said at a press conference. - Because of this incident, the credibility was called into question. I apologize to these children and their families. "

And this is not the only case of the arrest of children.

In July, an 10-year-old black boy was arrested for aggravated assault after throwing a ball in the face of another child while playing a dodgeball game at a playground in a suburban school in Detroit, Michigan.

In August, the US Court of Appeals for the 8 District ruled that a school resource specialist in Kansas City, Missouri, who handcuffed a crying 7-year-old boy for refusing to go to the principal’s office, committed “reasonable actions” and did not violate constitutional the rights of the child. According to a lawsuit filed by the American Civil Liberties Union against the school district, a hearing impaired boy started screaming after being asked to sit next to another student who teased him.

In January 2018, an 7-year-old boy was arrested at a school in Miami, Florida, because he did not respond to the teacher’s remark “do not play with food.” The police said that he “attacked” the teacher. According to the head of the police department of schools in Miami-Dade, the arrest of the 7-year-old student was "justified for the benefit of others and the boy himself, so that his promiscuous and violent behavior would not cause further harm."

According to the FBI, in addition to these, there were hundreds of arrests for serious crimes. In 2017, 23 children under the age of 10 were arrested for sexual harassment, 13 for robbery, 52 for arson and 362 for theft, including 9 for stealing a car. The details of these cases were not disclosed.

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It is unclear how many such incidents occurred in schools. According to the US Department of Education's Civil Rights Department, over 2015-2016 years, more than 290 600 cases in schools were referred to law enforcement or led to arrest.

Black schoolchildren were more prone to this disciplinary action.

In 2013-2014, the data is almost the same - 260 students were sent to law enforcement, and 000 were arrested at school. Additional research shows that school exclusion was more for children based on race.

Lack of training

Some experts argue that the intervention of police and school departments to work with such young children is not surprising.

“None of this is shocking. This is predictable if police officers do not change their way of working with children and adolescents, ”Turau said. - You must be adequate in making decisions in relation to children, taking into account the degree of development and health, respecting racial justice. We do not train officers to work in schools. ”

According to Turau, recruits in police academies are usually given a total of four to six hours of instruction in how to deal with child abuse, in schools and on the streets. A report by the Bureau of Justice Statistics for the 2013 year states that 62% of the police were trained in youth engagement.

Only some states have laws and regulations regarding certification or police training.

Mo Canadi, executive director of the National Association of School Resource Specialists, a nonprofit organization that trains around 10 000 school resource specialists across the country each year, says police training is not just about child education.

“The officer who works at the school should not be indifferent,” said Kanadi. "It is very clear to us that the person who will work in this environment must be very carefully selected."

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“So, you need to make sure that the moral character of the person is appropriate, that he has a good track record, that he really wants to work with children,” he added.

Kanadi said his organization provides a course for officers that includes working with students with special needs and understanding brain development in adolescents.

“We want the officers to understand that there is science behind this. What happens to children at different stages of their lives and how this affects brain development, said Kanadi. “When we understand this and the officers are well informed, it is possible to talk about de-escalation of situations. It is very important".

Kanadi, a retired Alabama police officer who devoted half his 25 year career to law enforcement as a school resource officer. He said that officers are also trained to refrain from participating in cases that are purely disciplinary matters.

“The number one goal that we set for SROs who come to our classes is that the most important thing is to build relationships with students,” said Kanadi. “Bridging the gap between law enforcement and youth is critical, as the right action can prevent serious crime.”

Carol Mason, president of the John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York, said many programs have been developed in recent years to reduce the number of child arrests and provide the police and schools with the tools they need to solve this problem.

Racial inequality

In July, the US Civil Rights Commission issued a report, “Beyond Suspension: Studying School Policy and Communication with the School-Prison System for Children of All Races with Disabilities.” The study showed that students with disabilities are at a higher risk of being expelled than their peers, and dark-skinned students with disabilities lost about 77 days more school activities through suspension than their white peers.

A commission report also revealed that 1,6 million students attend school with a school counselor. The report indicates that in the 2015 – 16 school year, more than 27 000 school professionals were registered in schools compared to 23 000 social workers.

"Individual racial groups do not commit more disciplinary offenses than their white counterparts - but students of other races collectively receive significantly more disciplinary punishments than their white counterparts and receive harsher and longer penalties than their white counterparts for similar crimes." - wrote Catherine E. Lhamon, chairman of the commission, in a letter addressed to US President Donald Trump and Vice President Mike Pence.

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The Commission made a number of recommendations, including providing teachers with resources, guidance, training and support for non-discriminatory discipline in schools. Congress should provide financial incentives to states to ensure that all schools have adequate counselors and social workers.

Mason said that in some school districts teams have been created that monitor the behavior of students to find out what resources they need to make a child successful and avoid disciplinary problems.

FBI reports also show that the number of children under the age of 10 arrested has gradually decreased over the past four years, from a 2014 high of 6 to 458 in 4068. Statistics for 2017 have not yet been released.

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